The EV Charging Industry Glossary
According to the IEA (International Energy Agency), the electric vehicle (EV) market is increasing exponentially. EVs “on the road” will go from 14 million in 2019 to 100 million by 2025.
The EV charging infrastructure needs to accommodate both growth – McKinsey projects 42 million chargers by 2030 – and a wide range of charging behaviors.
We thought it would be a good timing for a blog post which may help you enhance your knowledge about EV charging terminology, incl. EV ecosystem key players, infrastructure elements, EV industry protocols and more.
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CPO – Charge Point Operator – installs, manages and ensures optimal operations of chargers/stations from one or more manufacturers
EMSP – Electro-mobility Service Provider – servicing EV drivers, providing charger location and availability information, route planning, reserve-ahead capability, account details, payment capabilities and more, to ensure high levels of driver satisfaction and retention
EVSP – Electric Vehicle Service Provider (= The network provider): provides network charging stations connectivity. Connecting to a cloud-based server, the EVSP manages the backend software, database and communications to enable stations’ operations.
EVSE – Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment – provides charging points’ / charging stations’ technical elements
CPMS = CSMS = Charge Point Management System is an information technology system built for managing, controlling and optimizing the EV charging process.
SoC – State of Charge – is the level of charge of an electric battery relative to its capacity
Roaming – Roaming for EV charging enables EV drivers to charge their EV with charging stations of different networks, using a single account.
Roaming is key in enabling interconnected national and international EV charging networks, and will create more joined-up charging networks ensuring seamless and reliable charging within and across countries for drivers.
Smart Charging – the ability to manage, monitor, and restrict EV charging to optimize energy based on the demand of the local consumption. This is made possible by real-time communication between electric vehicles, charging stations and charging operators. With smart charging, the charging power can be decreased automatically so it doesn’t exceed the limits of the grid
Smart energy management solution optimizes the charging infrastructure and energy resources, by efficiently monitoring, managing and adjusting energy consumption, providing optimal demand response and ensuring drivers can charge their EV when they need it.
Vehicle to grid (V2G) – V2G is a key area of EV charging energy management. V2G enables a two-way energy exchange flow between the vehicle and the grid.
In a V2G scenario, energy stored in an EV can be fed back to the grid at times of peak demand and ultimately overcome the strain. Given that the average car is parked for around 95% of the day, V2G connectivity offers the potential to optimize grids by leveraging millions of EVs as decentralized energy storage resources, with no capital or operating costs.
Demand response – allows consumers to play a key role in the electric grid operation by reducing or shifting their electricity consumption during peak times in response to time-based specific rates or other forms of financial incentives, offered by power utilities for balancing supply and demand.
Smart Demand response – Dynamic load balancing powered by a flexible and configurable algorithm that manages demand response events (lowering consumption when there is grid congestion or when the price is too high) and V2G (for discharging).
EV Fleet Management – enables EV fleet managers to maximize utilization and reduce energy costs, guaranteeing EV drivers have enough charge for their next trip. EV fleet charging is prioritized based on fleet business priorities and actual State of Charge (SoC).
AC charger – Alternating current (AC) charger, with power of up to 22KW. Charging will take 6-24 hours.
DC charger – Direct current (DC) charger, also called fast chargers, with power 50Kw to 100KW. Charging will take 30 mins – 1.5 hours.
Ultra-fast charger – DC charger of 100Kw. Charging will take 5-30 mins.
Socket = Connector/Plug/Port
EV charging protocols and standards
Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) –– is an application protocol for communication between Electric vehicle (EV) charging stations and central management systems, even when produced by different vendors.
Open Charge Point Interface (OCPI) –The Open Charge Point Interface protocol is designed for exchanging information about charge points between Charge Point Operator and e-Mobility Service Providers to enable a scalable, automated EV roaming. OCPI is an independent open roaming protocol and is free to use. It can work both peer to peer as well as with roaming hubs.
OCSP – Open Smart Charging Protocol –protocol for communication between charge point management system and energy management system of the site owner or the DSO system.
ISO15118 – Vehicle to grid communication interface is an international standard defining a vehicle to grid (V2G) communication interface for bi-directional charging/discharging of electric vehicles.
Plug-n-charge – with this technology, all the driver needs to do is insert the charge plug into the car, charge, and drive away when ready. This process is enabled by a digital certificate located in the vehicle allowing it to communicate with the charging station via a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) communication protocol. This enables a seamless end-to-end charging process, including automatic authentication and billing and avoid the need to use an RFID card, an app or to memorize PIN numbers.
Private charging infrastructure – privately owned stations that are not accessible to the public such as home charging, multi-dwelling buildings, business premises and other private parking areas
Public charging infrastructure – offers EV charging stations in public places such as on streets, highways, etc. therefore enabling longer journeys
Semi-public Charging Infrastructure – offered in privately owned facilities such as shopping malls, supermarkets, city and commercial parking lots